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The Bolero is the most romantic of the Latin dances. Taking cues from the Rumba and Waltz, the Bolero has distinct characteristics of long sweeping side steps and use of rise and fall to create softness to dramatic movement.

Cha Cha

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Sharp Staccato actions, rhythm changes, and exciting patterns are just some of the challenging aspects of this dance. The Cha Cha is one of most popular Latin dances and encourages you to cut loose and let your personality show.


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The “classic” of all International Ballroom Dances, the Slow Foxtrot is the ultimate in movement and polish. A dancer will feel transformed as they master control of the feet and develop strength in the legs, ankles and knees.


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Originating in the 19070s Disco Era, the Hustle continues to be one of the most popular nightclub dances today. The strong bass beat of the music makes for an exciting and upbeat movement between partners.


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This speedy dance is the light-hearted favorite of accomplished dancers. When this lively music is accompanied by a proficient understanding of acceleration and change of speed, the couple portrays a combination of ability and elegance.


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The Rumba will sharpen your sense of rhythm, timing and muscular control. Working off the actions of the Cha Cha, the slower rhythm of the Rumba allows for dancers to develop the distinctive hip action of Latin dances.


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The Salsa is the unique blending of the traditional Latin music and dance steps with the freedom of turning actions and elaborate arm patterns with your partner. The Salsa fits onto a crowded floor without losing its flavor.


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A street festival dance that originated in Brazil, the Samba combines Latin rhythms with a bouncing action. To achieve the true character of the Samba, a dancer must give it a happy, flirtatious and exuberant interpretation.


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Perhaps the most uniquely American of all dances, Swing has a buoyant carefree movement that is contagious. Swing may be danced over a wide range of tempos and consists of variations of the rock step and the step step patterns.


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No other dance captures the drama, strength and romance of the relationship between a man and woman like the International Tango. The strong staccato movements make this dance as exciting to perform as it is to watch.

Viennese Waltz

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This remains one of the most enchanting and exhilarating dances. While the patterns remain pure and restricted, the technique required demands more of the dancer as they strive to capture the graceful qualities of this dance.


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The romantic melodies epitomize the grace and pose found in two perfectly tuned bodies as they move like one. This dance will develop mastery of sway, rise and fall, balance and control – essential to experiencing the true joy of Ballroom Dance.


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A high energy Latin dance where the music characterized by a stirring Afro-Cuban beat. As a parent of the Cha Cha and Salsa, the Mambo is an exciting dance that includes crisp leg actions and flirtatious interactions with your partner.

Country Western

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The Country Western program takes familiar patterns and rhythms and puts a new twist on their style. There are several dances danced to Country Western music, each with its own unique style and timing.

Originally a Spanish dance in 3/4 time, it was changed in Cuba initially into 2/4 time then eventually into 4/4. It is now present as a very slow type of Rumba rhythm. The music is frequently arranged with Spanish vocals and a subtle percussion effect, usually implemented with Conga or Bongos.

From the less inhibited nightclubs and dance halls the Mambo underwent subtle changes. It was triple mambo, and then peculiar scraping and shuffling sounds during the ‘tripling’ produced the imitative sound of Cha Cha Cha. This then became a dance in itself. Mambo or triple Mambo or Cha Cha as it is now called, is but an advanced stage in interpretive social dancing born of the fusion of progressive American and Latin music.

Said by some to have been originated by Harry Fox (1913). It is now a standard ballroom dance the world over and serves as a good foundation for social dances in 2/4 or 4/4 time. NOTE: See also Two Step.

A number if similar style disco dances, which had it’s beginning in the mid-70’s and enjoys some continuing popularity as a swing style today. The record ‘Do The Hustle’ was followed by the movie ‘Saturday Night Fever.’ The movie portrayal of partner dancing by John Travolta to the popular beat of top selling music from the Bee Gees and the introduction to America of the Discotheque setting, popular for some years in Europe, took America by storm. Flashing lights, mirrors everywhere, loud throbbing beat, and high fashion were in. Large numbers of popular Discos sprang up in every city and everyone was waiting in line to dance.

The English version of the Fast Fox Trot, which has quick hopping steps, set in with the smoother gliding figures. It is very popular in Europe as a competition dance. It ranks among the ‘Big Five,’ the other three being the Slow Fox Trot, the Waltz, the Tango and the Viennese Waltz.

The Rumba was originally a marriage dance. Many of its movements and actions that seem to have an erotic meaning are merely depictions of simple farm tasks, the showing of the mare, the climbing of a rope, the courtship of the rooster and the hen, etc. The black population of Cuba did it for amusement on the farms. However, it became a popular ballroom dance and was introduced in the United States about 1933. It was the Americanized version for the Cuban Son and Danzon. It is in 4/4 time. The characteristic feature is to take each step without initially placing the weight on that step. Steps are made with a slightly bent knee which, when straightened, causes the hips to sway from side to side in what has come to be known as ‘Cuban Motion.’

This is a favored name for a type of Latin music, which, for the most part, has its roots in Cuban culture and is enhanced by jazz textures. The word, Salsa, means sauce denoting a ‘hot’ flavor and is best distinguished from other Latin music styles by defining it as the New York sound developed by Puerto Rican musicians in New York. The dance structure is largely associated with mambo type patterns and has a particular feeling that is associated mainly with the Clave and the Montuno.

This Brazilian dance was first introduced in 1917 but was finally adopted by Brazilian society in 1930 as a ballroom dance. It is sometimes referred to as a Samba, Carioca, a Baion or a Batucado. The difference is mostly in the tempo played since the steps in all three dances are very similar. The style is to bounce steadily and smoothly in 2/4 meter. They say that the late Carmen Miranda introduced the Samba in the United States in 1939.

An ever-popular blend of several African American dances, which include Lindy and Ragtime Jazz and Blues, as well as all the other dance music to accompanying dances of the past ninety years. Today it generally refers to the ballroom and nightclub version, which is based on two slow, and two quick counts or the slow and two quick counts of rhythm dances.

Continental/English – See INTERNATIONAL TANGO There are essentially three types of Tango – Argentine, American and International Style. Argentine Tango: (arrabalero) A dance created by the Gauchos in Buenos Aires. It was actually an attempt on their part to imitate the Spanish dance except that they danced it in a closed ballroom position. The Tango caused a sensation and was soon to be seen the world over in a more subdued version. American Tango: Unlike the Argentine Tango, in which the dancer interprets the music spontaneously without any predetermined slows or quick’s, the American Tango features a structure, which is correlated to the musical phrasing. The dance is executed both in the closed position and in various types of extravagant dance relationships, which incorporate a particular freedom of expression that is not present in the International style. International Tango: This is a highly disciplined and distinctively structured form of the Tango, which is accepted worldwide as the format for dancesport events. The dancers remain in traditional closed position throughout and express both legato and staccato aspects of the type of music appropriate to this style.

With such wonderful composers as Johann Strauss and others, the Waltz became more and more refined. The steps became smaller with the turns smoother and more compact. Adding the graceful lilt of the flowing skirts we have today’s, Viennese Waltz.

The real origin of the Waltz is rather obscure, but a dance of turns and glides, leaping and stomping appeared in various parts of Europe at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century. In Italy it was the Volta, France has its Volte, Germany the Weller and Austria had its Landler. These were round dances but at the end of the dance itself, there was a short period in which the circle would break up into couples who would whirl madly round and round and finish with a jump in the air. In the Landler the hopping gave way more to a gliding motion and that is why it is considered the forerunner of the Waltz. The Waltz can be traced back as far as 400+ years. The Waltz regained its real popularity in the 20th century. The Waltz blossomed out as the Hesitation Waltz in 1913. Until the development of the hesitation, couples had waltzed in one direction until dizzy and then reversed until ready to drop. The Waltz had degenerated into an endurance contest. The Hesitation resulted in the Waltz it is done today. The slow Waltz was once known as the Boston Waltz. Today the slow Waltz is the American Waltz, English Waltz or just Waltz, and the faster is the Viennese Waltz.

The fusion of Swing and Cuban music produced this fascinating rhythm and in turn created a new sensational dance. The Mambo could not have been conceived earlier since up until that time Cuba and the American Jazz were still not wedded. The Victor records of Anselmo Sacasas entitled ‘Mambo’ in 1944 were probably the beginning and since then other Latin American bandleaders such as Tito Rodriguez, Pupi Campo, Tito Puente, Perez Prado, Machito and Xavier Cugat have achieved styling of their own and furthered the Mambo craze. The Mambo was originally played as any Rumba with a riff ending. It may be described as a riff or a Rumba with emphasis on the fourth beat 4/4′ time. Originally played by some musicians in 2/4 time with a break or emphasis on 2 and 4. Native Cubans or dancers, without any training, would break on any beat. MARCHA: the Latin American counterpart of our One-Step.

The Two-Step originated in the 1800’s by people who arrived here from Europe. It was an offspring of the minute and they danced it as QQSS. In the old Western days when women were not allowed to dance with men, men danced together and that is the reason for the hard on the shoulder holding a can of beer and the other hand to the side. The only women who eventually danced with these men were Indian Squaws and that is where all the turns came about because Indian women loved to spin. Two-step is a Western dance whose popularity has spread all over the United States.

Originated in the West Indies where it was danced only by the lowest classes. The name is from the African Tanganya. The dance found it’s way to Argentina and then to France and finally into the United States in a modified form about 1914. Latin American ballroom Tango is danced in 4/4 time. NOTE: See also Continental Tango, English Tango, and Tango.

Adlib dance movements with no fixed structure. Danced without touching partner to a variety of music styles including Rock ‘n Roll, and discotheque beats.

The Spanish March or One Step. It makes an especially good exhibition routine when the man styles his body movements to look like a bullfighter and leads his partner in and out of the patterns as if she were a cape. It is usually in 2/4 time.

A fast Fox Trot during which dancers may use many quick steps set against the figure called ‘Open Box’. It was popular in the larger ballrooms where dance space was not a problem.

This dance was introduced to society in 1844. Every now and then it is revived because of its boisterous charm. It was supposed to have been originally created by a Bohemian girl. The basic step consists of a preparatory hop followed by a chasse done first to left then to the right. Curiously enough, it reappeared in the 1940’s in the Cha Cha as one of the more popular steps. Still danced quite often throughout the country.

A stylized Swing dance popular west of the Mississippi from Kansas to California. Danced in a slot to medium to slow Swing or Disco music and characterized by slot movements, taps and shuffles, coaster steps, and push and pull action of the dancers.

Arthur Murray Dance Studios of Arnold and Crofton